In a world where there are hundreds of different programming languages to choose from, choosing the correct languages for a project or task can be overwhelming and difficult. With this being said, there are certainly different flavors of programming languages geared towards solving different types of problems. Among these, there is a family of general purpose functional languages called MetaLanguage (or ML as it’s commonly referred to). Within the family of MetaLanguage, there exists a uniquely interesting programming language called Objective Categorical Abstract Machine Language, which is commonly referred to as OCaml. OCaml was invented in 1996 by the Inria corporation. This language is primarily an extension of the Caml language with the inclusion of some object-oriented design. OCaml’s tool set and features are what make it a robust and powerful language to use in modern day applications.
OCaml is a general purpose functional programming language. By virtue of this, the language provides first class functions; this implies that functions are treated as proper variables. First class functions open the door to more powerful methods of functional programming; OCaml is able to have higher order functions, anonymous functions, and currying. Despite the functional paradigm that’s encouraged by the language itself, what makes this particular language useful is its support for both imperative styles of programming as well as object-oriented programming.
Imperative programming styles are, for the most part, fairly accounted for and supported in OCaml. This particular feature is useful because it ultimately gives the developer greater control over the memory representation of data and how the program itself is executed. The language provides access to variables and arrays; it can also record components which can be declared as mutable. This impure functional language might allow irresponsible developers to shoot themselves in the foot, but it also add more power to the language. The imperative support allows OCaml program to have an extra layer of data control, which consequently opens the door to more powerful abilities such as iteration and rich data structures such as hashmaps.
The object-oriented features of OCaml allow developers to create objects and classes for their programs. Similarly to how the support for imperative programming styles benefits OCaml, the object-oriented features allow for data organization in classes and objects, and even goes as far as to provide more robust properties like polymorphic classes. Since OCaml’s object-oriented pattern allows for polymorphism, this gives developers the ability to create more complex programs and create abstract types.
Aside from the supported paradigms and styles of programming, OCaml, much like all C and ML languages, is strict by default in the sense that it enforces eager evaluation. Many benefits can be derived from strict languages such as OCaml; one major point being that there is no overhead for having to keep track of evaluations much like there is in a non-strict or lazy language. OCaml has a strict evaluation pattern which implies that it has more control over when expressions are evaluated; this can help with catching bugs. Examples of this can be attempting to divide by zero in a function argument; with strict evaluation, this argument gets evaluated first and the error is caught, whereas with a lazy evaluation, this error isn’t caught until the function itself is executed.
Some of the more uniquely interesting and incredible aspects of OCaml include its statically typed system, and its ability to leverage this to help produce extremely performant code. The good thing about statically typed languages is that they help eliminate type conflicts at compile time rather than at runtime. This guarantee of safety ensures that programs are verified before they’re ever executed. This feature is particularly helpful because it prevents very common human errors that occur when developing a program: conflating an integer and pointer, accessing an invalid piece of data, or buffer overflows, just to name a few.
Performance is a rather large benefit we get from OCaml’s statically typed system. Since any type conflicts are resolved at compile time, this eliminates any need for type related safety checks at runtime. These kinds of checks are necessary for dynamically typed languages, which consequently add a slow overhead, therefore slowing down the speed of the program itself. Most scripting languages tend to be dynamically typed, so this simple change of type system puts OCaml far ahead of its peers with respect to speed. When it comes to benchmarking, OCaml is argued to be almost as fast as C, which is incredibly impressive and unique considering it is a type safe language.
Not only is OCaml statically typed, but it also has type inference, which is the ability to automatically assume the data type of an expression at compile time, without its type needing to be explicitly defined. Rather, the compiler will generally either attempt to predict the type based on existing atomic data types of the language, or it will try to gather information about the data being analyzed, and come to a conclusion that way. As a matter of fact, entire programs can be written without explicitly declaring any types, and OCaml is able to figure out all of the types automatically. Traditionally, this power comes at a cost; type inference is usually a relatively expensive feature to support, and can be expected to ultimately slow down the compilation process. In OCaml, however, this isn’t the case due to its unique and revolutionary implementation of its type inference algorithm. OCaml has an interesting take on the usual approach; its own algorithm is a derivation of the common type inference algorithm known as Algorithm W, only OCaml’s interpretation utilizes a graph based algorithm which ends up being a much more speed efficient variation of the traditional approach. The downside to the quick inference implementation, is that it can result in strange type errors in more complicated programs.
Modules and Functors
Alongside these features, OCaml also comes with a mature module system that can be categorized into three key parts: signatures, structures, and functors. The signature of a module defines what type of data it can be parameterized with, where the structure relates to how the body of the module is designed. Functors are a very powerful feature in this module system; this is gives developers the ability to parameterize a module with other modules. This opens the door to all sorts of complex programs; having modules that can be constructed using one or more other modules adds layers of abstraction that otherwise wouldn’t be achievable in OCaml. A simple use case of functors could be the following: let’s say you have a module that creates a set of items, and in order to check if an item already exists within a given set, we need to apply a custom equality function. We can create an equality module and use it to parameterize our set module so that we can apply our custom equality function within the set module; this makes the set module a functor. Besides the support of functors, this module system can also be particularly helpful to developers for the simple added bonus of having namespacing within modules; this can help avoid any naming conflicts that may occur in a program.
Structure and Tool Set
OCaml provides an extensive set of tools and libraries when it comes to
development, one of which being the interactive toplevel interpreter; this
system is designed in a read-eval-print loop where it repeatedly reads
expressions from the input, type checks, compiles, evaluates, then prints the
result. This is similar to how Racket’s interactive toplevel interpreter
works (or Node.js, or most other interactive toplevel interpreters for that
matter). Having this kind of tool makes the developer’s life very easy when
they want to just test out some code quickly. The toplevel interpreter is also
used to interpret entire files of OCaml code; the general syntax is
ocaml options objects scriptfile. Before a scriptfile is read by the interpreter,
OCaml will first search the current directory, and, if not found, then the
HOME directory for a
.ocamlinit file. This file can be used to import
necessary libraries that the program might need, or provide any other set up
OCaml also provides the developers with a bytecode compiler and a native code
compiler. Similar to a C compiler, dependency ordering matters when trying to
link and compile several files. This compiler will build and provide optimized
executable files that generally run faster than simply interpreting the source
code, with the native code compiler usually being faster. The main purpose
of these compilers is for both portability and efficiency; OCaml is able to
build your files into very fast executables which, as we’ve mentioned earlier,
are roughly the same speed as C. There are some third party tools that
assist the developer in linking dependencies, one of the more popular ones
ocamake; you feed it your source files and it will link them together
automatically and the build them into an executable using the bytecode
compiler. Tools like these alongside the compilers themselves really benefit
the language in both efficiency and with being able to move code around on
Managing packages in OCaml is relatively easy due to the open source package manager called OPAM. This package manager supports multiple simultaneous compiler installations and also integrates well with a git based development workflows. OPAM is a way for engineers to easily install and share any open sourced packages that they create and publish to the OPAM package registry, which helps increase the speed of the development process by sharing commonly used code. Especially for an emerging language like OCaml, the ability to simply distribute code and build a strong set of libraries really help the language grow and thrive as more developers begin to use it.